Evidence #231 | August 30, 2021

Ammon and Moses

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Scripture Central


The Book of Mormon portrays Ammon, who served a mission among the Lamanites, as a prophet like Moses, reflecting the Book of Mormon’s ancient Hebrew literary background.

The Biblical Exodus and Moses

The Israelite Exodus—God’s deliverance of the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage—was a key event in biblical history. For ancient Israel, that event showed God’s faithfulness while also promising future deliverance events as well. In recent decades, scholars have become more aware of the exodus pattern in the Bible, which is increasingly seen as a mark of the ancient Israelite worldview.

According to David Daube, “as God had vindicated those relations in the Exodus, one could be certain that he would vindicate them again, and again, unto the last. The kind of salvation portrayed in the Exodus was not, by its nature, an isolated occurrence.”1 Subsequent biblical stories were often framed and interpreted in light of that earlier event, and “by being fashioned on the exodus, later deliverances became manifestations of this eternal certainty-giving relationship between God and his people.”2

One facet of the exodus pattern that has been the focus of recent biblical scholarship is the Moses typology. As observed by Noel Reynolds,

Recent scholarly analyses of the Old Testament show that ancient Israelites expected true prophets to draw such comparisons, at least implicitly. Beginning with the book of Joshua, Old Testament texts consciously portrayed great prophets and heroes that would highlight their similarities with Moses, the prophetic predecessor whose divine calling and powers were not questioned … Moses was revered by the rebellious and the obedient alike, making him a powerful icon that successive prophets could invoke in their attempts to influence their own contemporaries to be obedient and faithful.3

Readers of scriptural accounts, however, can easily miss the subtle allusions to the Exodus in biblical narratives. As one biblical scholar notes, very often “their resemblance to the Exodus is not mentioned outright, leaving it to the reader to decipher the hints and uncover the implicit links.”4 Like the Bible, the Book of Mormon provides many examples of the Exodus pattern, including the Moses typology.5

Ammon as a Moses Figure in the Book of Mormon

This summary focuses specifically on the way that Ammon, the famous Nephite missionary, fits this typological pattern. The mission of Ammon and the sons of Mosiah to the Lamanites was a key event in the history of Lehi’s people. The remarkable conversion of many thousands of Lamanites, something that many Nephites considered impossible, was a fulfilment of the Lord’s covenant promises and had a lasting effect upon both the Lamanites and the Nephites for generations. Mormon introduces this story with Ammon, the leader of this missionary team, by portraying him as a prophet like Moses who leads a miraculous Lamanite exodus from spiritual bondage and physical peril.

Royal Background

Moses was raised in the Egyptian court by the daughter of Pharaoh (Exodus 2:5–10). Ammon was also a prince and one of the sons of King Mosiah (Mosiah 27:34).

The sons of Mosiah walking. Image via churchofjesuschrist.org. 

Brothers Named Aaron

Both Moses and Ammon had a brother named Aaron who ended up being a type of missionary companion as they fulfilled the Lord’s errand (Exodus 4:14; Mosiah 27:34; Alma 21:1).

Relinquishing Royal Privileges

Both Moses and Ammon gave up their royal privileges to serve the Lord. Ammon refused to be king and became a servant among the Lamanites (Mosiah 29:3). Moses had to give up his royal life in Egypt after attempting to protect a Hebrew slave from abuse (Exodus 2:11–15).

Dwelling in a Foreign Land

After slaying an Egyptian, Moses fled to Midian where he met the priest of that land and was “content to dwell with the man” (Exodus 2:21). Likewise, Ammon and his brothers renounced their rights to the Nephite throne and went up to the land of Nephi to live among a foreign people and to preach the Gospel (Mosiah 28:1–9; 29:3; Alma 17:6). Ammon told King Lamoni that he desired “to dwell among this people for a time; yea, and perhaps until the day I die” (Alma 17:23).

Moses in Midian, by Norman Kelly. Image via pixels.com. 

Offers of Marriage to Daughters

When Moses fled to Midian, Jethro “gave Moses Zipporah his daughter” to be his wife (Exodus 2:21). King Lamoni similarly desired that Ammon “take one of his daughters to wife” (Alma 17:24–25).


After arriving in Midian, “Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian” (Exodus 3:1). Likewise, upon arriving in the land of Ishmael, Ammon “was set among other servants to watch the flocks of Lamoni” (Alma 17:25).

Call and Conversion

Moses was called by God after seeing the “angel of the Lord” (Exodus 3:2). Ammon and his brethren were with Alma when an “angel of the Lord” appeared to them and called them to repentance (Mosiah 27:11, 18–20; Alma 17:2). This transformative angelic encounter was a catalyst for their mission to the Lamanites (Mosiah 28:4).

Remembering the Savior, by Kevin Keele. Image via churchofjesuschrist.org. 

The Lord Promises Deliverance

Concerning the Israelites, the Lord told Moses, “I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians” (Exodus 3:8; cf. v. 10). When King Mosiah asked whether Ammon and his brothers should go on a mission to the Lamanites, the Lord similarly declared, “Let them go up, for many shall believe on their words, and they shall have eternal life; and I will deliver thy sons out of the hands of the Lamanites” (Mosiah 28:7).

People Will Believe Moses and Ammon

After Moses expressed concern about the people not listening to him, the Lord told him to “gather the elders of Israel together” and declared that “they shall hearken to thy voice” (Exodus 3:12, 16). Later on, after their safe passage through the Red Sea and deliverance from the Egyptians, we read that “the people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord, and his servant Moses” (Exodus 14:30–31). Similarly, the Lord told Mosiah to let his sons serve a mission, “for many shall believe on their words” (Mosiah 28:7). The fulfillment of this prophecy is repeatedly emphasized throughout their missionary experiences (Alma 18:23, 40; 19:9; 22:11; 23:5; 24:19; 25:6).

The Lord Was with Them

After Moses expressed concerns about his inadequacies, the Lord declared, “Certainly I will be with thee” (Exodus 3:12). Before arriving at their destinations among the Lamanites, Ammon and his brethren similarly prayed “that the Lord would grant unto them a portion of his Spirit to go with them, and abide with them” (Alma 17:9).

The Lord Visits His People

Before their deliverance, the Lord told Moses to gather together the elders of Israel and say the following: “I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt” (Exodus 3:16). Prior to the missionary efforts and deliverances of Ammon and his brethren, “the Lord did visit them with his Spirit” and “comforted” them in a similar way (Alma 17:10).

God’s Identity and Creator Status

After receiving his prophetic commission, Moses asked the Lord what to tell the people when they questioned the identity of the God who sent him. (Exodus 3:14). Pharaoh’s words several chapters later echo this concern: “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go?” (Exodus 5:2). The theme of God’s identity is also prominent in Ammon’s teachings to Lamoni: “And Ammon began to speak unto him with boldness, and said unto him: Believest thou that there is a God? And he answered, and said unto him: I do not know what that meaneth” (Alma 18:24–25; cf. Alma 22:7–12).

Ammon then went on to explain the nature of God, especially emphasizing God’s status as the Creator (Alma 18:28–36; cf. Alma 22:10–13). The theme of creation may also be present in God’s self-description given to Moses: “And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you” (Exodus 3:14). The Hebrew behind the name “I AM THAT I AM” (’ehye ’ăšer ’ehye) can also mean “‘I will be what I will be’ or perhaps I create what(ever) I create.’”6 In addition, the Lord Himself brought up His Creator status shortly after giving Moses this self-description (Exodus 4:11).

Requesting and Receiving Permission of a Father/Father-in-Law

After receiving his divine commission, “Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt …. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.” (Exodus 4:18). As for Ammon and his brothers, “they did plead with their father many days that they might go up to the land of Nephi” to help deliver the Lamanites from spiritual bondage (Mosiah 28:5). After praying about the matter and receiving confirmation from the Lord, Mosiah “granted that they might go and do according to their request” (v. 8).7

Flocks/People are Scattered, Followed by Fears of Being Slain

Instead of granting Moses’s initial request to let the Israelites free, Pharaoh gave them extra burdens, which resulted in them being “scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw” (Exodus 5:12). The enemies at the waters of Sebus similarly “scattered the flocks of Ammon and the servants of the king” (Alma 17:27).

In both contexts, this scattering resulted in the slaves/servants murmuring about their situation. The leaders of the Israelites told Moses that he had turned Pharaoh and his Egyptian servants against them and effectively “put a sword in their hand to slay us” (Exodus 5:12). Similarly, at the waters of Sebus, “the servants of the king began to murmur, saying: Now the king will slay us, as he has our brethren because their flocks were scattered by the wickedness of these men” (Alma 17:28).

Ammon soothes the fears of Lamoni's servants at the Waters of Sebus. Image via churchofjesuschrist.org. 

Deliverance of Flocks

Moses defended Jethro’s daughters and the flocks from those who “came and drove them away: but Moses stood up and helped them and watered their flock” (Exodus 2:17). Similarly, Ammon defended the flocks of Lamoni and his servants when other Lamanites tried to scatter them (Alma 17:26–39).

Protection at a Place of Water

Whereas Ammon delivered Lamoni’s flocks at the “water of Sebus” (Alma 17:26),8 Moses delivered the children of Israel at the waters of the Red Sea (Exodus 14). At the waters of Sebus, Lamoni’s servants “wept because of the fear of being slain” (Alma 17:29), and the children of Israel “were sore afraid” when the Egyptian army “overtook them encamping by the sea” (Exodus 14:9–10).

In response to this fear, both Moses and Ammon gave a speech encouraging their followers. Moses declared, “Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord” (Exodus 14:13). Ammon stated, “My brethren, be of good cheer and let us go in search of the flocks … ; and thus we will preserve the flocks unto the king and he will not slay us” (Alma 17:31). Moses then exclaimed, “The Lord shall fight for you” (Exodus 14:14). Ammon, who was filled with the power of the Lord, similarly declared, “I go and contend with these men who do scatter our flocks” (Alma 17:33).

In each story, the people (or flocks) were protected by being encircled in some way. At the waters of Sebus, Lamoni’s servants were instructed by Ammon to “Encircle the flocks round about” (Alma 17:33). And at the Red Sea, the children of Israel were protected by a cloudy or fiery “pillar,” that first led their way in the front and then protected them in the rear from the advancing Egyptian army (Exodus 14:19–20). Then, they were surrounded and protected from and by the sea itself, which was “a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left” (v. 22).

Moses Parting the Red Sea, by Robert T. Barrett. Image via churchofjesuschrist.org. 

Report of His Deeds

After Moses defended the flocks at the well, Jethro’s daughters reported the deed to their father. Jethro then asked, “where is he? why is it that ye have left the man?” (Exodus 2:20). When Lamoni’s servants reported the deeds of Ammon, the king similarly asked, “where is this man that has such great power?” (Alma 18:8).

Sword and Rod as Instruments of Power

To aid Moses in his prophetic commission, the Lord imbued Moses’s rod with divine power (Exodus 4:17). With it, Moses smote the Egyptians with various curses. It was also used to smite the Red Sea, dividing it in two (a very sword-like action) and creating a path of deliverance for the Israelites and a mode of destruction for the Egyptian army (Exodus 14:16). Instead of using a rod, Ammon’s sword became a symbol of his divine power (Alma 17:37–39; 18:16). With it, he severed his enemies’ arms from their bodies and protected the king’s servants and flocks.

Thus, both men delivered their people with a symbolic, hand-held instrument. These specific items are intriguing because there exists a close conceptual parallel between rod and sword in both the Bible and the Book of Mormon. In several instances, the two are almost symbolically interchangeable.9

On another level, this imagery is noteworthy because Ammon and his fellow missionaries specifically prayed “that they might be an instrument in the hands of God,” whereupon God granted their desire: “I will make an instrument of thee in my hands unto the salvation of many souls” (Alma 17:9, 11; cf. Alma 26:3, 15). One can’t help but wonder if the imagery of Moses and his rod played a role in the symbolism behind this request.

Strength of the Lord

On the brink of Israelites’ deliverance, “Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from this place” (Exodus 13:3). The strength of the Lord is emphasized a couple more times in this same chapter (vv. 14, 16), as well as in the song the people sang to the Lord after their deliverance (Exodus 15:2, 13).

Ammon’s divine strength is a theme present throughout his narrative as well. Ammon caused the Lamanite marauders “to flee by the strength of his arm” (Alma 17:37). Lamoni’s servants attributed Ammon’s “expertness and great strength” to some supernatural power (Alma 18:3). Lamoni later said to Ammon, “I know, in the strength of the Lord thou canst do all things” (Alma 20:4). And Ammon himself clarified, “I do not boast in my own strength … but I will boast of my God, for in his strength I can do all things” (Alma 26:11–12).

Raised Up to Manifest God’s Power

In his interactions with Pharaoh and King Lamoni, the Lord used these kings and their high status to manifest His power unto the people. To Pharaoh the Lord declared, “in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power” (Exodus 9:16). Lamoni can be seen as the antithesis of this Egyptian Pharaoh. Whereas Pharaoh was raised up as an example of a prideful ruler, Lamoni literally “arose” (as if from the dead) to show forth the “power of God” which converted him from a wicked to a righteous king (Alma 19:6, 12). After this event, a woman named Abish ran to tell the people what had happened, hoping that “by beholding this scene it would cause them to believe in the power of God” (v. 17).

Negotiations, Smiting, and Liberation

In his interactions with Pharaoh, Moses requested on multiple occasions that Pharaoh free the children of Israel from bondage so they could worship their God. Pharaoh repeatedly declined this request, was smitten by some sort of plague (typically enacted through Moses’s rod), after which he granted the request, and then reneged on his agreement (Exodus 8:8–10).

When King Lamoni’s father confronted Lamoni and Ammon, a somewhat similar scenario played out. Lamoni insisted that he needed to help Ammon free his brethren, after which Lamoni’s father sought to slay Lamoni before directing his anger and violence toward Ammon (Alma 20:8–20). In response, Ammon defended Lamoni and smote his father (v. 20). This forced the king to negotiate the terms of Lamoni’s freedom and the freedom of his people.

Thus, both episodes included (1) a quest to free brethren from bondage, (2) a wicked king who refused the request, (3) the king being smitten, (4) negotiations of terms for the people’s freedom, and (5) the eventual freedom of the people in bondage. The difference, of course, is that Pharaoh never did soften his heart, whereas Lamoni’s father was converted to the Lord.

Moses speaking with Pharaoh, from The Ten Commandments

Journey to a Feast

The exchange between Moses and Pharaoh is similar to that of Ammon and Lamoni’s father in that both occurred in the context of a journey to a feast. In his initial statements to Pharaoh, Moses declared, “Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness” (Exodus 5:1; cf. 10:9). In contrast, Lamoni’s father was angry with Lamoni because he hadn’t attended a feast: “Why did ye not come to the feast on that great day when I made a feast unto my sons, and unto my people?” (Alma 20:9).

Robbing of Property

When the Israelites left Egypt, they “spoiled” the Egyptian’s wealth, taking with them their “jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment” (Exodus 12:35–36). Lamoni’s father was worried that Ammon and his brethren had come to “rob us of our property” (Alma 20:13), thus further solidifying a comparison between Lamoni’s father and Pharaoh.

Let My/Thy Son Go

Before Moses returned to Egypt, the Lord instructed him as follows: “And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord, Israel is my son, even my firstborn: And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn” (Exodus 4:22–23).

When Ammon encountered Lamoni’s father, similar themes were present, although presented in different contexts. Ammon declared, “Behold, thou shalt not slay thy son” (Alma 20:17). In response to Ammon’s threats, Lamoni’s father also let go of his son politically speaking: “I will grant unto you that my son may retain his kingdom from this time and forever; and I will govern him no more” (v. 26). After which Lamoni was free to travel with Ammon to free his brethren from bondage (v. 28). 

A Lamanite Exodus

Just as the Israelites fled from Egypt, many converted Lamanites had to eventually flee from their lands to where the Nephites had settled. Before finally settling in the Promised Land, the children of Israel sent out men “to spy out the land”—in other words, to investigate the situation and see if it was safe to settle there (Numbers 13:16). Similarly, after the converted Lamanites had fled into the wilderness, “Ammon said unto them: Behold, I and my brethren will go forth into the land of Zarahemla, and ye shall remain here until we return; and we will try the hearts of our brethren, whether they will that ye shall come into their land” (Alma 27:15).

While some among the children of Israel were discouraged by the strength of Canaan’s inhabitants, “Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it” (Numbers 13:30). Likewise, Ammon and Alma returned to the Lamanites with a good report, relaying that the Nephites were willing to give up a portion of their lands. “And it came to pass that it did cause great joy among them. And they went down … and took possession of the land of Jershon” (Alma 27:26).10

Image via Adobe Stock.


The parallels between Ammon and Moses highlighted above echo the type of subtle and multifaceted literary borrowing that scholars have now discovered in a number of biblical texts. In some cases, the symbolism in a single Ammon narrative simultaneously draws from one or more events in the Exodus account. This can be seen in Ammon’s activities at the waters of Sebus, which allude to Moses protecting Jethro’s flocks and to Moses protecting the Israelites at the Red Sea.

In other cases, a single Exodus story is evoked in multiple accounts featuring Ammon, such as the way that both King Mosiah and King Lamoni reflect Jethro’s interactions with Moses. It should also be noted that similarities sometimes help emphasize key differences. Both Lamoni and his father, for example, started off much like Pharaoh, but they ultimately repented, whereas Pharaoh continued to harden his heart. In such situations, the Exodus allusions help establish key theological points.

From an ancient Hebrew literary perspective, there would be nothing wrong with these kinds of fluid, repetitious, or selective allusions. A creative and competent Hebrew author would no doubt welcome as many opportunities as possible to amplify certain themes by drawing diverse connections between similar stories, as can be seen in a number of biblical texts. In this instance, it very much appears that whoever wrote the narratives about Ammon intended for readers to see him as a type of Moses as he facilitated the spiritual and physical deliverance among the Lamanites.

Readers will have to decide for themselves whether they think an early nineteenth-century writer like Joseph Smith would have been capable of producing this subtle network of literary connections.11 What can be said with confidence is that this type of complex, multi-faceted allusion is consistent with the Book of Mormon’s claim of having been written by ancient authors who inherited the Hebrew literary tradition and had access to the Exodus story through a document (the Brass Plates) similar to the Hebrew Bible.

S. Kent Brown, “The Exodus Pattern in the Book of Mormon,” BYU Studies 30, no. 3 (Summer 1990): 111–126, reprinted in S. Kent Brown, From Jerusalem to Zarahemla: Literary and Historical Studies of the Book of Mormon (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1998), 75–98.

David R. Seely, “‘A Prophet Like Moses’: Deuteronomy 18:15–18 in the Book of Mormon, the Bible, and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in “To Seek the Law of the Lord”: Essays in Honor of John W. Welch (Orem, UT: Interpreter Foundation, 2017), 360–374. 

Noel B. Reynolds, “The Israelite Background of Moses Typology in the Book of Mormon,” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 5–23. 

Noel B. Reynolds, “Lehi as Moses,” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 2 (2000): 26–35.

Terrrence L. Szink, “Nephi and the Exodus,” in Rediscovering the Book of Mormon, ed., John L. Sorenson and Melvin J. Thorne (Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1991), 50–51.

Allen Goff, “Mourning, Consolation, and Repentance at Nahom,” in Rediscovering the Book of Mormon, ed., John L. Sorenson and Melvin J. Thorne (Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1991), 92–99.

George S. Tate, “The Typology of the Exodus Pattern in the Book of Mormon,” in Literature of Belief: Sacred Scripture and Religious Experience, ed., Neal E. Lambert (Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1981), 245–262.

BibleExodus 2:5–10Exodus 2:11–15Exodus 2:17Exodus 2:20Exodus 2:21Exodus 3:1Exodus 3:2Exodus 3:8 Exodus 3:10Exodus 3:12Exodus 3:14Exodus 3:16Exodus 4:11Exodus 4:14 Exodus 4:17Exodus 4:18Exodus 4:22–23Exodus 5:1Exodus 5:2Exodus 5:12Exodus 5:12Exodus 8:8–10Exodus 9:16Exodus 10:9Exodus 12:35–36Exodus 13:3Exodus 13:14 Exodus 13:16Exodus 14:9–10 Exodus 14:13Exodus 14:14 Exodus 14:16Exodus 14:19–20 Exodus 14:22Exodus 14:30–31Exodus 15:2 Exodus 15:13Numbers 13:16Numbers 13:30Book of MormonMosiah 27:11Mosiah 27:18–20Mosiah 27:34Mosiah 28:1–9Mosiah 28:4Mosiah 28:5 Mosiah 28:7 Mosiah 28:8Mosiah 29:3Alma 17:2Alma 17:6Alma 17:8Alma 17:9Alma 17:10Alma 17:11 Alma 17:23–39Alma 18:3Alma 18:8Alma 18:16Alma 18:23Alma 18:24–25 Alma 18:28–36 Alma 18:40Alma 19:6Alma 19:9 Alma 19:12Alma 19:17Alma 20:3Alma 20:4Alma 20:8–20 Alma 20:26Alma 20:28Alma 21:1Alma 22:7–13Alma 23:5Alma 24:19Alma 25:6 Alma 26:3Alma 26:11–12Alma 26:15Alma 27:15Alma 27:26


Exodus 2:5–10

Exodus 2:11–15

Exodus 2:17

Exodus 2:20

Exodus 2:21

Exodus 3:1

Exodus 3:2

Exodus 3:8

Exodus 3:10

Exodus 3:12

Exodus 3:14

Exodus 3:16

Exodus 4:11

Exodus 4:14

Exodus 4:17

Exodus 4:18

Exodus 4:22–23

Exodus 5:1

Exodus 5:2

Exodus 5:12

Exodus 5:12

Exodus 8:8–10

Exodus 9:16

Exodus 10:9

Exodus 12:35–36

Exodus 13:3

Exodus 13:14

Exodus 13:16

Exodus 14:9–10

Exodus 14:13

Exodus 14:14

Exodus 14:16

Exodus 14:19–20

Exodus 14:22

Exodus 14:30–31

Exodus 15:2

Exodus 15:13

Numbers 13:16

Numbers 13:30


Book of Mormon

Mosiah 27:11

Mosiah 27:18–20

Mosiah 27:34

Mosiah 28:1–9

Mosiah 28:4

Mosiah 28:5

Mosiah 28:7

Mosiah 28:8

Mosiah 29:3

Alma 17:2

Alma 17:6

Alma 17:8

Alma 17:9

Alma 17:10

Alma 17:11

Alma 17:23–39

Alma 18:3

Alma 18:8

Alma 18:16

Alma 18:23

Alma 18:24–25

Alma 18:28–36

Alma 18:40

Alma 19:6

Alma 19:9

Alma 19:12

Alma 19:17

Alma 20:3

Alma 20:4

Alma 20:8–20

Alma 20:26

Alma 20:28

Alma 21:1

Alma 22:7–13

Alma 23:5

Alma 24:19

Alma 25:6

Alma 26:3

Alma 26:11–12

Alma 26:15

Alma 27:15

Alma 27:26

  • 1 David Daube, The Exodus Pattern in the Bible (London: Faber and Faber, 1963), 13–14.
  • 2 Daube, The Exodus Pattern in the Bible, 14.
  • 3 Noel B. Reynolds, “The Israelite Background of Moses Typology in the Book of Mormon,” BYU Studies Quarterly 44, no. 2 (2005): 14.
  • 4 Yair Zakovitch, “And You Shall tell Your Son…”: The Concept of the Exodus in the Bible (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1991), 46.
  • 5 David R. Seely, “‘A Prophet Like Moses’: Deuteronomy 18:15–18 in the Book of Mormon, the Bible, and the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in “To Seek the Law of the Lord”: Essays in Honor of John W. Welch (Orem, UT: Interpreter Foundation, 2017), 360–374; Reynolds, The Israelite Background of Moses Typology in the Book of Mormon,” 4–23; Noel B. Reynolds, “Lehi as Moses,” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 9, no. 2 (2000): 26–35; S. Kent Brown, “The Exodus Pattern in the Book of Mormon,” BYU Studies 30, no. 3 (Summer 1990): 111–126, reprinted in S. Kent Brown, From Jerusalem to Zarahemla: Literary and Historical Studies of the Book of Mormon (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1998), 75–98.
  • 6 Robert E. Stone, II, “I AM WHO I AM,” in Eerdmans: Dictionary to the Bible, ed. David Noel Freedman (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), 624.
  • 7 On a different occasion, Ammon told Lamoni, “Behold, my brother and brethren are in prison at Middoni, and I go that I may deliver them” (Alma 20:3). While not strictly a request for permission, this is still a type of conferral with an authority figure about embarking on a quest to deliver one’s brethren.
  • 8 For the possible attestation of the name Sebus, see Evidence Central, “Book of Mormon Evidence: Sebus,” January 18, 2021, online at evidencecentral.org.
  • 9 See Book of Mormon Central, “How Are Rod and Sword Connected to the Word of God? (1 Nephi 11:25),” KnoWhy 427 (April 24, 2018); John A. Tvedtnes, “Rod and Sword as the Word of God,” in Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, no. 2 (1996): 148–55; reprinted in Pressing Forward with the Book of Mormon: The FARMs Updates of the 1990s, ed. John W. Welch and Melvin J. Thorne (Provo, UT: FARMS, 1999) 32–39.
  • 10 For the significance of the name Jershon, see Evidence Central, “Book of Mormon Evidence: Wordplay on Jershon,” September 19, 2020, online at evidencecentral.org.
  • 11 See Evidence Central, “Book of Mormon Evidence: Joseph Smith’s Limited Education,” September 19, 2020, online at evidencecentral.org; Evidence Central, “Book of Mormon Evidence: Joseph Smith Compared with Contemporary Authors,” November 2, 2020, online at evidencecentral.org.
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